yet chosen the broad way into which the multitude rushes, led by the ban- ner on which, strange to say, the royal Ea gle is blazoned, together with the word Expediency? Let him decline that road, and take the narrow, thorny path where Integrity leads, though with no prouder emblem than the dove. He may there Snd the needed remedy which, like the white root, the Moly, detected by the patient and resolved Odysseus,6 shall have power to restore the herd of men, disguised by the enchantress to whom they had willingly yielded in the forms of brutes, to the stature and beauty of men.


From Things and Thoughts in Eu rope1

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Letter XVIII

This letter will reach the United States about the 1st of January; and it may not be impertinent to offer a few New- Year’s re^ections. Every new year, indeed, conSrms the old thoughts, but also presents them under some new aspects.

The American in Eu rope, if a thinking mind, can only become more American. In some respects it is a great plea sure to be here. Although we have an in de pen dent po liti cal existence, our position toward Eu rope, as to Literature and the Arts, is still that of a colony, and one feels the same joy here that is experienced by the colonist in returning to the parent home. What was but picture to us becomes reality; remote allusions and deriva- tions trouble no more: we see the pattern of the stuff, and understand the whole tapestry. There is a gradual clearing up on many points, and many baseless notions and crude fancies are dropped. Even the post- haste passage of the business American through the great cities, escorted by cheating cou- riers, and ignorant valets de place,2 unable to hold intercourse with the natives of the country, and passing all his leisure hours with his country- men, who know no more than himself, clears his mind of some mistakes— lifts some mists from his horizon.

There are three species: Srst, the servile American— a being utterly shal- low, thoughtless, worthless. He comes abroad to spend his money and indulge his tastes. His object in Eu rope is to have fashionable clothes, good foreign cookery, to know some titled persons, and furnish himself with coffee- house gossip, which he wins importance at home by retailing among those less traveled, and as uninformed as himself.

I look with unspeakable contempt on this class— a class which has all the thoughtlessness and partiality of the exclusive classes in Eu rope, without any of their reSnement, or the chivalric feeling which still sparkles among them here and there. However, though these willing serfs in a free age do

6. In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus (Ulysses) is able to resist Circe’s efforts to turn him into a swine by eating the magical herb moly. 1. The text is from the New York Daily Tribune, January 1, 1848. Between August 23, 1846 and January 6, 1850, Fuller published thirty- seven dispatches in the Daily Tribune under the title of

“Things and Thoughts in Eu rope.” She arrived in Rome in March 1847 and quickly became an enthusiastic supporter of the Italian revolutionar- ies calling for national uniScation and in de pen- dence. This letter was written in Rome in November or December 1847. 2. Local servants (French).

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some little hurt, and cause some annoyance at present, it cannot last: our country is fated to a grand, in de pen dent existence, and, as its laws develop, these parasites of a bygone period must whither and drop away.

Then there is the conceited American, instinctively bristling and proud of— he knows not what.— He does not see, not he, that the history of Humanity for many centuries is likely to have produced results it requires some training, some devotion, to appreciate and proSt by. With his great clumsy hands, only Stted to work on a steam- engine, he seizes the old Cre- mona violin,3 makes it shriek with anguish in his grasp, and then declares he thought it was all humbug before he came, and now he knows it; that there is not really any music in these old things; that the frogs in one of our swamps makes much Sner, for they are young and alive. To him the eti- quettes of courts and camps, the ritual of the Church, seem simply silly— and no wonder, profoundly ignorant as he is of their origin and meaning. Just so the legends which are the subjects of pictures, the profound myths which are represented in the antique marbles, amaze and revolt him; as, indeed, such things need to be judged of by another standard from that of the Connecticut Blue- Laws.4 He criticises severely pictures, feeling quite sure that his natural senses are better means of judgment than the rules of connoisseurs— not feeling that to see such objects mental vision as well as ^eshly eyes are needed, and that something is aimed at in Art beyond the imitation of the commonest forms of Nature.

This is Jonathan5 in the sprawling state, the booby truant, not yet aspir- ing enough to be a good school- boy. Yet in his folly there is meaning; add thought and culture to his in de pen dence, and he will be a man of might: he is not a creature without hope, like the thick- skinned dandy of the class Srst speciSed.

The Artistes form a class by themselves. Yet among them, though seeking special aims by special means, may also be found the lineaments of these two classes, as well as of the third, of which I am now to speak.

3d. The thinking American— a man who, recognizing the im mense advan- tage of being born to a new world and on a virgin soil, yet does not wish one seed from the Past to be lost. He is anxious to gather and carry back with him all that will bear a new climate and new culture. Some will dwindle; others will attain a bloom and stature unknown before. He wishes to gather them clean, free from noxious insects. He wishes to give them a fair trial in his new world. And that he may know the conditions under which he may best place them in that new world, he does not neglect to study their history in this.

The history of our planet in some moments seems so painfully mean and little, such tri^ing baf^ings and failures to compensate some brilliant successes— such a crashing of the mass of men beneath the feet of a few, and these, too, often the least worthy— such a small drop of honey to each cup of gall, and, in many cases, so mingled, that it is never one moment in life purely tasted,— above all, so little achieved for Humanity as a whole, such tides of war and pestilence intervening to blot out the traces of each

3. Famous violin made in Cremona, Italy, by Antonio Amati (1555– 1640). 4. Such laws demanded the closing of businesses

on Sundays and were aimed at curbing the sale of alcohol. 5. Typical, ordinary American.



triumph, that no wonder if the strongest soul sometimes pauses aghast! No wonder if the many indolently console themselves with gross joys and frivo- lous prizes. Yes! those men are worthy of admiration who can carry this cross faithfully through Sfty years; it is a great while for all the agonies that beset a lover of good, a lover of men; it makes a soul worthy of a speedier ascent, a more productive ministry in the next sphere. Blessed are they who ever keep that portion of pure, generous love with which they began life! How blessed those who have deepened the fountains, and have enough to spare for the thirst of others! Some such there are; and, feeling that, with all the excuses for failure, still only the sight of those who triumph gives a meaning to life or makes its pangs endurable, we must arise and follow.

Eigh teen hundred years of this Christian culture in these Eu ro pe an Kingdoms, a great theme never lost sight of, a mighty idea, an adorable his- tory to which the hearts of men invariably cling, yet are genuine results rare as grains of gold in the river’s sandy bed! Where is the genuine Democracy to which the rights of all men are holy? where the child- like wisdom learn- ing all through life more and more of the will of God? where the aversion to falsehood in all its myriad disguises of cant, vanity, covetousness, so clear to be read in all the history of Jesus of Nazareth? Modern Eu rope is the sequel to that history, and see this hollow En gland, with its monstrous wealth and cruel poverty, its conventional life and low, practical aims; see this poor France, so full of talent, so adroit, yet so shallow and glossy still, which could not escape from a false position with all its baptism of blood; see that lost Poland and this Italy bound down by treacherous hands in all the force of genius; see Rus sia with its brutal Czar and innumerable slaves; see Austria and its royalty that represents nothing, and its people who, as people, are and have nothing! If we consider the amount of truth that has really been spoken out in the world, and the love that has beat in private hearts— how Genius has decked each springtime with such splendid ^owers, conveying each one enough of instruction in its life of harmonious energy, and how continually, unquenchably the spark of faith has striven to burst into ̂ ame and light up the Universe— the public failure seems amazing, even monstrous.

Still Eu rope toils and struggles with her idea, and, at this moment, all things bode and declare a new outbreak of the Sre, to destroy the old palaces of crime! May it fertilize also many vineyards!— Here at this moment a suc- cessor of St. Peter, after the lapse of two thousand years, is called “Utopian” by a part of this Eu rope, because he strives to get some food to the mouths of the leaner of his ^ock. A wonderful state of things, and which leaves as the best argument against despair that men do not, cannot despair amid such dark experiences— and thou, my country! will thou not be more true? does no greater success await thee? All things have so conspired to teach, to aid! A new world, a new chance, with oceans to wall in the new thought against interference from the old!— Treasures of all kinds, gold, silver, corn, marble, to provide for every physical need! A noble, constant, starlike soul, an Italian,6 led the way to its shores, and, in the Srst days, the strong, the pure, those too brave, too sincere for the life of the Old World hastened to

6. Christopher Columbus (1451– 1506), born in Genoa.

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people them. A generous struggle then shook off what was foreign and gave the nation a glorious start for a worthy goal. Men rocked the cradle of its hopes, great, Srm, disinterested men who saw, who wrote, as the basis of all that was to be done, a statement of the rights, the inborn rights of men, which, if fully interpreted and acted upon, leaves nothing to be desired.

Yet, oh Ea gle, whose early ^ight showed this clear sight of the Sun, how often dost thou near the ground, how show the vulture in these later days! Thou wert to be the advance- guard of Humanity, the herald of all Progress; how often hast thou betrayed this high commission! Fain would the tongue in clear triumphant accents draw example from thy story, to encourage the hearts of those who almost faint and die beneath the old oppressions. But we must stammer and blush when we speak of many things. I take pride here that I may really say the Liberty of the Press works well, and that the checks and balances naturally evolve from it which sufSce to its government. I may say the minds of our people are alert, and that Talent has a free chance to rise. It is much. But dare I say that po liti cal ambition is not as darkly sullied as in other countries? Dare I say that men of most in^uence in po liti cal life are those who represent most virtue or even intellectual power? Is it easy to Snd names in that career of which I can speak with enthusiasm? Must I not confess in my country to a boundless lust of gain? Must I not confess to the weakest vanity, which bristles and blusters at each foolish taunt of the foreign press; and must I not admit that the men who make these undigniSed rejoin- ders seek and Snd popularity so? Must I not confess that there is as yet no antidote cordially adopted that will defend even that great, rich country against the evils that have grown out of the commercial system in the old world? Can I say our social laws are generally better, or show a nobler insight to the wants of man and woman? I do, indeed, say what I believe, that volun- tary association for improvement in these particulars will be the grand means for my nation to grow and give a nobler harmony to the coming age. But it is only of a small minority that I can say they as yet seriously take to heart these things; that they earnestly meditate on what is wanted for the country,— for mankind,— for our cause is, indeed, the cause of all mankind at present. Could we succeed, really succeed, combine a deep religious love with practi- cal development, the achievements of Genius with the happiness of the mul- titude, we might believe Man had now reached a commanding point in his ascent, and would stumble and faint no more. Then there is this horrible cancer of Slavery, and this wicked War,7 that has grown out of it. How dare I speak of these things here? I listen to the same arguments against the eman- cipation of Italy, that are used against the emancipation of our blacks; the same arguments in favor of the spollation8 of Poland as for the conquest of Mexico. I Snd the cause of tyranny and wrong everywhere the same— and lo! my Country the darkest offender, because with the least excuse, foresworn to the high calling with which she was called,— no champion of the rights of men, but a robber and a jailor; the scourge hid behind her banner; her eyes Sxed, not on the stars, but on the possession of other men.

7. The war with Mexico (1846– 48), which many Northerners believed was intended to expand

slavery into the southwestern territories. 8. Spoliation.

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How it pleases me here to think of the Abolitionists! I could never endure to be with them at home, they were so tedious, often so narrow, always so rabid and exaggerated in their tone.

But, after all, they had a high motive, something eternal in their desire and life; and, if it was not the only thing worth thinking of it was really something worth living and dying for to free a great nation from such a ter- rible blot, such a threatening plague. God strengthen them and make them wise to achieve their purpose!

I please myself, too, with remembering some ardent souls among the American youth who, I trust, will yet expand and help to give soul to the huge, over fed, too hastily grown- up body. May they be constant. “Were Man but constant he were perfect!”9 it has been said; and it is true that he who could be constant to those moments in which he has been truly human— not brutal, not mechanical— is on the sure path to his perfection and to effectual ser vice of the Universe.

It is to the youth that Hope addresses itself, to those who yet burn with aspiration, who are not hardened in their sins. But I dare not expect too much of them. I am not very old, yet of those who, in life’s morning, I saw touched by the light of a high hope, many have seceded. Some have become voluptuaries; some mere family men, who think it is quite life enough to win bread for half a dozen people and treat them decently; others are lost through indolence and vacillation. Yet some remain constant. “I have wit- nessed many a shipwreck, yet still beat noble hearts.”

I have found many among the youth of En gland, of France— of Italy also— full of high desire, but will they have courage and purity to Sght the battle through in the sacred, the immortal band? Of some of them I believe it and await the proof. If a few succeed amid the trial, we have not lived and loved in vain.

To these, the heart of my country, a Happy New Year! I do not know what I have written. I have merely yielded to my feelings in thinking of America; but something of true love must be in these lines— receive them kindly, my friends; it is, by itself, some merit for printed words to be sincere.


9. Shakespeare’s The Two Gentlemen of Verona 5.4.111– 12.

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