Waste Management on Construction

Based on the aim and objectives and Literature Review that have been done, please write a Dissertation about Waste Management on Construction Sites in Oman. Read the instruction that I send it to you carefully and also read the Literature Review and based on that write the Dissertation. The work must be professionally done, which means that details, explanations, examples, citations and references are very necessary. Write at least 7,000 words without the literature review. The literature review already has 5,500 words so total amount of words for the full the dissertation is 13,000 words.
Write about the environmental issues of the waste management and how to reduce or prevent it from happening, use reliable resources from books, articles and past studies.

Waste Management on Construction sites in Oman Chapter 2 Literature review


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The increasing world human population has forced human beings to expand their capacity in order to meet their needs. The growing population demands for more food, shelter and clothing that in turn force the productivity to increase. The means through which these needs are met often result in production of wastes. The menace of waste causes a lot of managerial problems as well as challenges to natural resource management. More innovation and management measures are therefore created to reduce the impacts of; human activities generating wastes; and reduce the impacts of wastes to the environment.

One important activity that meets the basic human needs is construction. There are many forms of constructions in today’s world (Saleh and Alalouch, 2015). The constructions do not only meet the basic human needs but also meet secondary and tertiary needs. Construction activities range from simple constructions that need little engineering to complex construction that requires enormous engineering skills. There is a high competition in the building industry hence the activities of construction are likely to happen every day. Regardless of the type and size of construction, there is a likelihood of wastes to be generated at all the stages of construction. These stages of construction include the preconstruction phase, the construction phase and the commissioning phase. All these stages generate either biodegradable or degradable wastes. There is also likelihood that the construction wastes from these stages of construction can produce hazardous wastes. Impact of construction wastes can therefore have negative impact to the natural and human environment.

The general situation in the construction industry in the Gulf Cooperation Council currently witnesses growth (GCC Construction Industry, 2012). The government pumps a lot of money to construction as it attempts to diversify the economy. Some catalysts for construction in the country include the promising tourism industry. Construction industry ends up getting a hefty budget allocation. According to Courtney et al. (2014), Oman has a relatively lower population pressures thus the demand for structural developments is low. However the existing projects have laid down an impressive trend that can easily be managed. The public sector in Oman is responsible for the major structural projects development in Oman. These projects includes large projects in the country. Some of the infrastructure that the central government takes care of include the infrastructure in the the transport sector, tourism sector, oil and gas sector. Some of the projects in the transportation sector include airports, roads and highways, railways and ports. Construction projects in the construction sector include construction of resorts and hotels. Major players in the construction sector include the government, real estate developers, project consultants, project managers, contractors, subcontractors and mmaterial suppliers. The main mmaterials used by the construction industry include cement, cement products, steel, wood, wood products,paints and sanitary systems. Not all these materials are exhausted during construction hence result to generation of wastes.

Due to the wastes associated with construction of various structural projects there is need to watch the developments in the industry. Wastes are produced in various process and stages of construction. This paper will therefor review wastes related to the construction sector, stategies of management and there advantages and the barriers of waste management strategies. The dissertation will also compare waste management strategies between the construction sectors of Oman and United Kingdom.

Aim and Objectives

The general objectives of this study are to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with wastes form the construction industry.

The specific objectives include;

1. To compare waste management (WM) between two different countries Oman and U.K by research and comparative study.

2. To assess the potentials that can be achieved by using recommended waste management practices.

3. To evaluate the benefits of recycle and reuse of waste materials.

4. To evaluate the barriers of recycle and reuse of waste management

5. To analyse the current awareness construction workers of waste management by questionnaire.

Literature Review

Waste Management in the construction Industries of Oman and UK

The construction industry in the US has been cited as one of the fastest growing sector in the U.K. the sector significantly makes up 8.2 percent o f the U.K’s gross Domesticated Product (Bhagwat, 2008). Various reports have established that the construction industry in the UK creates less environmental impacts. The industry is also linked to efficient use of resources and eficient waste management practices. However, the menace of wastes generated from the construction industry is still a challenge. 32 percent of the total wsates in the UK come from the construction industry. Most of the wastes generated from the sector is disposed in lanfill. The government has made several efforts in an attempt to regulate the amounts of wastes generated from the sector. Such efforts have been met through the formulation of laws and legislations such as the one published in the publuc policy of 2001.

There was an increase of wastes from the UK’s construction sector from 2001 to 2005. Incineration of wastes, recycling of waste metal, treatment and transportation of wastes significantly increased during the same period. The sector has also witnessed a 15 percent cut of its wastes disposal at landfills. The 15 percent drop of wastes to the landfill translates to 60 perecent of the total construction wastes disposed at landfills. Also, between 2001 to 2005, 6 percent of the construction wastes in U.K were incinerated and 10 percent of the wastes recycled. Another 22 percent of the construction waste in the UK was treated using various technologies (Bhagwat, 2008).

The building and construction sector in the UK has adopted a waste management hierarchy use in the UK for sustainable waste management. The adopted hierarchy has five steps that include prevention of waste genaration, minimization of waste generation, reuse of wastes, recycling of waste products, energy recovery and disposal of wastes. On of the most advocated for method is waste prevention. The construction companies have to take care not to generate wastes during various construction processes. In most cases such a situation may not have 100 perecnt effeiciency and thus the concept of minimization. This level admits that waste generation is real but there is measure that can reduce the rate at which wastes are generated.

Three other levels of construction waste management in the UK are commonly known as 3R’s. these R’s refer to Reduce, Recycle and Reuse that building and construction sector has to adhere to. the main aims of all these levels is to reduce the final amount of wastes to be disposed at a landfill. Further reccomendations require that the construction sector conducts safe and appropriate disposal of construction related wastes.

Most of the wastes generated from the construction sector is non-harzardous. Only a few percentage f the construction wastes are harzardous wastes that require special treatment and procedure of handling. Harzardous wastes are generated from the harzardous materials for construction or harzardous components in construction material. Preconstruction phases and demolition of buildings accounts for the larger amount of what is considered as harzardous wastes in UK’s construction sector. A greater percentage of the harzardous wastes from the construction sector is taken to the landfills. Earlier trends in UK’s construction sector had the characteristics of indiscriminate disposal of construction wastes in the same landfill. However the situation changed afeter the the European Union categorized harzardous wastes as special wastes. To date, the harzadous wastes from the construction sector are given special treatment and procedures to ensure minimal effects to the enviroment.

According to Bhagwat (2008), UK’s construction industry has not not enough as far as waste management is concerned. The sector still generates approximately 31 percent of the total wastes that translates to over 89.6 million tonnes in mass. Over 28 million tonnes of these wastes are transporeted to alandfill. Further the wastes have been classified as recyclable wastes, inert wastes, active wastes and harzardous wastes. Innert wastes include the wastes that are less reactive with the natural environment such as wood. Harzardous wastes includes wastes from paints and other chemicals used in construction. Accordind to Saleh and Alalouch (2015), the challenges the construction industry faces in the UK is almost similar to the challenges in Oman. Oman also struggles to attain credibility in terms of sustainability in the construction sector. The construction sector in Oman is responsible for development of human settlement infrastructure.

According to GCC Construction Industry (2012); In Oman the construction industry is currently witnessing fast growth and high demand for more structures and infrastructure. For many years, Oman has depended on oil and gas exploits as a major factor for economic development. The government of Oman has made huge investments in developmental projects to diversify the country’s economy. Specifically the tourism industry has catalyzed Oman to invest on infrastructures such as modern hotels. These factors leave the construction industry as the major beneficiary in terms of budget allocation. A previous report by Courtney et al. (2014), suggests that; Oman experiences healthy trends in the construction sector. The demand for human settlement can be low but the demand for modern infrastructure remains high. Despite the demand for more construction activities, the building and construction sector has impressed when it comes to management of construction and demolition waste. The public sector has played a major role in ensuring the construction sector manages wastes accordingly. The public sector in Oman manages most of the projects. The major projects handled by the central government include transport infrastructure, tourism infrastructure such as resorts, oil and gas infrastructure. Major transport-related infrastructural projects include airports, roads and highways, railways and ports. major projects in the tourism sector include construction of resorts and state of art hotels.

In Oman, the building and construction sector is controlled by major players that include real estate owners or developers, project consultants, project managers, contractors, subcontractors and mmaterial suppliers. The main mmaterials used by the construction industry include cement, cement products, steel, wood, wood products,paints and sanitary systems. Not all these materials are exhausted during construction hence result to generation of wastes.

The building and construction sector in Oman and UK experience alomost the same challenges. Also the two countries have some levels of similarities on the type of material used and the kinds of wastes generated. Demoliton process in both countries produces demolition wastes that can be challenging to manage. However, Oman currently concentrate more on construction than demolition. The state in Oman is different from U.K where wastes from construction and demolition contributes to a greater percentage of the wastes in a landfill. Both countries have recorded less efforts in managing construction and demolition wastes. The opportunities and potentials in construction and demolition wastes have not been fully explored. More research on sustainable management of these wastes is necessary for both the UK and Oman.

Potentials of Waste Management Practices

There are a range of waste management practices that can reduce the impacts of construction wastes to the environment (Waste and Resource Action Programme, 2015). The first step of mananging construction wastes is understanding the various ways in which these wastes occure. After understanding the nature and types of wastes, various methods can be established and technical application examined. According to Kareem et al. (2015) a good waste management plan should ensure that waste streams are acurately identified, focus on opportunities for avoidance and bank on reliable service providers in terms of waste management. Also, the contractors should determine the ways in which a waste management plan will perform on-site. According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (2007), good waste management plan should ensure that responsibilities are well assigned and communicated to all workers at a construction site. Goals in terms of waste management at source should be communicated to all construction workers. The personnel therfore requires a series of training and active engagement. Close monitoring and evaluation is mandatory to ensure that all plans are adhered to in the entire construction process. Specifically evaluation will provide more insight for improvements on future projects.

Some of the common construction and demolition recovery project types include deconstruction, renovation and demolition, Construction wastes include demolition wastes are generated from asphaltic concrete paving, concrete, bricks, wood, paneling, wood trim, miscellaneous steel, roofing remains, insulation material, metal studs and paints. The table (1) below show the various types of construction wastes and their related sources.

Construction activity Wastes generated
Timber work Timber cuttings leading to timber waste pieces
Metal work Metal cuttings
Reinforcement using iron bars Metal cutting and aborted works like drawing materials
Concreting Concrete left overs
Blocks and brick works Improper stacking leading to wastes, poor handling leading to breakages and excess material
Wall and floor construction Broken construction materials that include bricks and balast
Cement hadling Cement bags
Installation and wirining Generates plastc material wastes like cables, bags used to package and broken materials like tiles
Painting Paint cans


Construction may also include demolition of old structures to pave way for new structure. Such old structure would lead contribute to the larger amounts of demolition wastes are left for disposal. However, the manner in which demolitions are conducted can reduce the impacts of construction wastes. The amounts and nature of construction wastes may also vary depending on the nature of construction. For instance, the civil engineering projects may have instances of escavation that may generate soil as waste. Demolition of tarmac also generates a lot of solit debris that require a place for disposal. There is need to adopt a waste management strategy that will reduce the impact of such debris on the environmnet.

Construction wastes are generated during the various construction processes like demolition, building, repair and painting. Such activities make use of materials that may either be wholly or partialy used. The partially used material end up as wastes that need to be managed. Such wastes may have reactive characteristics, non-reactive characteristics, organic, inorganic, solid or fluid. This calls for various technical approaches of waste management the can be grouped into five levels. The first option of waste management is minimizing the amount of wastes generated during the construction process. Wastes tend to increase whenever the quality of inputs is low thus most percentage of the material input remains. Therefore, technical approaches for waste minimization can include using the best quality of material input during building and construction. Another reason for waste generations is the levele of technology, knowledge and materials used in a construction. Whenever these factors are of poor quality, measurments and estimations may tend to lack precision and acuracy thus affecting the use of materials during the construction process. There is a likelihood the poor estimations and measurements can result to increased amounts of construction wastes. Improving technology, expertise, machine and equipment can considerably increase precision and levels of accuracy in measurements. The inncrease can thus help in reducing the amounts of wastes generated in a construction site. Acurate measurement of construction materials ensures that most of the construction materials are accurately incoporated in a construction.

A successful construction waste management plan should ensure various goals are met within and arund the construction site (Department of Health of Hawaii, 2013). A good waste management plan will enable acurate identification of a waste stream. Understanding the waste streams improves the estimation of the amounts o expected wastes from a construction site. Significantly, theinformation on the waste stream also helpos improve the focus on waste avoidnace. Possible waste sources at a construction project can be tackled at the sources before they occur. Material or technological alternatives can be employed at possible waste sources to reduce the amount of wastes generated.

A good waste management plan has the potential to reduce the overal volumes of wastes transported to a landfill. The benefits are external, internal benefits and economic benefits. When all input resources are efficiently used, little volumes of wastes are produced. Some waste management approaches such as incineration may reduce the harmful effects of harzadous and toxic wastes on the environment and human beings. Effective waste management plans will reduce impacts of toxic wastes on underground water. Also, costs relatede to wastes like transpotation and liability charges are significantly reduced. With reduced cost of production, the construction companies can concetrate more on gaining competitive advantage through investin in modern technologies. Technologies in painting like targeted spray painting can reduces oversprays and wastes related to painting. Construction companies that make good use of green technology and cleaner production technologies are likely to be a step ahead in terms of competition. Specifically in Oman, such a company is likely to win more government tenders since the concern for wastes are reduced. Adopting a cleaner production technology makes it easy for a construction company to introduce an environmental management system (EMS). According to International Standard (2004), a construction company that successfully implements an EMS is likely to be certified under the ISO14001 series (Martin, 1998).

There are also a wide range of environmental benefits related to construction waste management. According to Samton (2003), proper construction waste management has the potential to lower the emission of CO2. Construction storm water pollution will also be prevented with proper waste management at construction sites. Waste of petroleum nature from machines at the construction sites can be significanlty reduced. Construction waste management ensures that building materials are used efficiently which reduces the stress on the environment. Reducing waste generation at construction sites reduces the environmental stress due to construction waste disposal at lanfills. Reusing of wastes from construction sites also reduces more environmental stress due to borrowing of raw materials from the environment. Recyling can present more creative opportunities to convert construction wastes to new products.

It has been estblished that Turkey experiences major economic losses due to lack of construction and demolition waste recycling (Arslan et al, 2012). Organization that have the capacity to recycle waste in Turkey have not been well devloped. In addition, the levels at which construction wastes are reused is very small. A number of construction and demolition waste collectors can be located on the outskirts of Istanbul. The collectors acquire, waste materials from construction sites and retail them at a cheaper price. However the target market for the recycled and waste materials to be reused are low income earners. the market forces makes the sytem inefficient despite the fact that many opportunities are present in reusing and recycling wastes.

In Australia, reusing and recycling of material depends on the market demand for the a product (Australian Government, 2012). Also, the geographical factors and pricing play a crucial role in determining recyclability and reuasability of wastes. In Australia, disposing large volumes of construction and demolition wastes is very expensive a state that catalyses recycling and reusing. The recycling and reusing of construction and demolition waste is therefore cheaper and the most prefered. Waste of Bricks and concrete are used in constructin llow-grade roads and all-weather type of roads. Recycled concrete eliminates the cost of quarrying to acquire rocks for road construction. Asphalt, waste from road construction and demolition projects has many opportunities. However, this area has not been fully explored in Australia. More economic advantages have also been realised in recycling waste metals. An approximated 90 percent of waste metals recovered from construction and demolition is from commercial demolition sites. The recovered metals include steel, non-ferous metals and alluminium. The relative cost of recycling these metals and separation is relatively inexpensive. Other building and construction materials recycled or reused in Australia include, soil, sand, rocks, excation stones, plasterboard, plastic and timber. There is need to explore full potential of construction and demolition wastes in Oman.

Benefits of Recycling and Reusing

As demand for develoment keeps increasing, the natural resource base is under threat of greater depletion (Rogers et al., 2012). Sustainable development is the best option for preserving and conserving the environment. Intra-generational and intergenerational equity should be considered in all developmental projects. Resources from nature need to be explored with moderation to avoid depletion (Baker, 2006). Recycling and reusing are meant to prevent a waste from completely getting to the environment (Woolley, Goumans, & Wainwright, 2000). Various technologies are used to recycle and reuse wastes depending on the source of the wastes. Recycling and reusing of wastes take advantage of technological innvation and creativity to avoid the buying of raw material. In some cases, recycling has been viewed as an option that only postpones the menace of a wastes. For instance recycling and reusing of plastics does not reduce the environmental impacts of the plastic material, it only postpones its disposal or transforms it to a new type of waste. It is important to understand the type of technology used in recycling and the outcome. Poor technologies in recycling and reusing of wastes will only raise the voice of critic. In addition, inefective technologies will not meet the intended goals of recycling.

According to Richardson (2013), recycling of wastes require that a waste be introduced in a production process as a raw material. By doing this, the waste material is transformed into a new product, the chemical and physical characteristics of the waste material is likely to change during the recycling proocess. According to the report by Japan Environmental Sanitation Center (2012), recycling can include material recycling or energy recycling. Some of the wastes that can be used in energy recycling are those that are combustible. A material like plastic is able to burn and produce energy. Recycling technology can use this information to either make a fuel from plastic wastes or use the plastic waste directly as a source of fuel. Energy recycling completely transforms the chemical state of a waste. Many countries including the US have adopted this type of recycling (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Material recycling only transforms the physical appearance of a waste without altering its chemical composition. For instance, melting plastic bottles to make plastic bags. By recycling, waste materials get to provide human beings with a new product.

Lens and Lens (2004) suggest that; recycling has many environmental benefits that include conservation of natural resources. When materials are recycled and used as raw materials in a production chain of industries, the environment is conserved (UNEP, 2005). There will be reduced stress of mining iron ore when waste iron sheets are smelted and used to produce new product. Also, the environment set aside as a landfill will receive less wastes. Demolition wastes specifically, come in bulk hence take up muuch space in a landfil. Recycling means that this space is left for other kinds of wastes that cannot be recycled.

Cost of production considerably be cut down when recycling is employed. For instance the cost of transporting raw, the cost of processing raw materials is cut. When recycling plastic, the raw materials in the production process include the waste plastic material that is cheaper to acquire. the cost of handling waste related challenges is also eliminated by recycling of products. The table below shows a range of products that can be produced from construction and demolition wastes Kashino et al. 2007).

Type of waste material The technology used in recycling New prdouct
Broken bricks Crushed into fine aggregate molded and fired at 9000 C Clay brick and sodium silicate brick
Asphalt Treated under cold and hot recycling process insitu.

Other technologies include parallel drum and elongated drum process.

Broken ceramics Crushed into fine ceramic Thermal insulator concrete and fillers in road construction
Cconcrete waste material Crushed into two forms of aggregate; fine and coarse aggregate Raw materials for road construction and hydraulic backfilling.

Material for making mortar

Non-ferous metal waste Smelting and purification Metal products
Paper Purification Recyled paper products
Plastic waste Melting and depolymerization Plastic products
Timber waste Chipping, combustion and cutting into desired pieces Combustion releases Energy, new timber products


Reusing of wastes is slightly different from recycling in a way that; reusing neither changes the physical nor the chemical characteristics of a waste product (Willard, 2013). Waste products are used directly in nature they occur. Many companies recommend reusing packaging bags as an attempt to prevent environmental degradation by wastes (Miller and Spoolman, 2014). Some of the materials that can be reused include tins left after using paints, plastic bags used for packaging various construction material, ropes and other fabric materials. Most of the construction wastes can directly be reused in various construction projects. Broken bricks can be used to form the foundation of pavements while broken glasses can be used on erecting perimeter walls. Wood can directly be reused at various stages of construction or other construction projects. Packaging cans and tins can also be used to store other material for construction and non-construction purposes.

One of the main advantages of reusing wastes is the fact that the no technical approach is required (Willard, 2013). Unlike recycling that requires technologies and some cost investment, reusing may only need cleaning. Reusing of construction materials also prevents environmental degradation and cost of production of construction materials. With a reduction in the cost of production of raw materials, there is a possibility of a trickle-down effect on the entire cost of construction. The cost of handling landfills will significantly reduce since most of the construction wastes are reduced (Vigneswaran, 2009).

According to Siddique (2007), whenever plastic wastes are recycled or reused, non-fossil fuels are conserved, energy consumption is significantly reduced. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen-oxide and sulfur dioxide emission is reduced. According to Miller and Spoolman (2012), sustainable development can only be achieved once resources are used efficiently. Reusing and recycling wastes provide many opportunities that can steer an economy towards sustainable development.

1.4. Barriers of Recycling and Reusing

According to Pichtel (2005), recycling and reusing have many environmental benefits but also have some barriers. The barriers range from technological, institutional, financial, knowledge, quality and convenience. People may decide to avoid recycling or reusing wastes due to one or several reason. At some instances, a project proponent may give directives on how a project is to be implemented which might discourage recycling and reusing (Limbachiya & Roberts, 2004).

The quality of recycled products may not meet the recommended standards of engineering Hence such regulations can be a barrier (MacBride, 2011). Recycled materials such as bricks might fail to bring out the required shape and design thus not suitable for certain construction projects. Recycled wood materials might have limited use in a construction site. Also, steel quality shape and size might have limited use in construction. These are some of the quality related barriers to recycling and reusing. Some materials may loose initial quality after use thus not preferred for reusing. In the example of paper recycling, the aspect of homogeneity of waste paper is of prime importance. This can decide the ultimate quality of recycled product. However, it is hard to find wastes of the same king same quality at one place. Sorting can be adopted, but this can not assure 100 percent homogeneity of the waste paper before recycling. In enhanced recycling in the US, waste paper is thoroughly graded before recycling is done. Some of the grades included soft mixed paper, boxboard cuttings, mill wrappers and used brown craft. Many other classifications are done that are not easy to achieve without a stable technology in place.

Another barrier to reusing and recycling of waste is technological barriers (MacBride, 2011). At some instances, technologies for recycling can be a major barrier to recycling. Construction workers may lack adequate knowledge to recycle construction and demolition waste. Contractors may also lack modern equipment and facility to recycle wastes. Some of these materials may be very expensive. Cost presents of the major barriers to recycling regarding energy requirements, and machinery. Some technologies come with a cost and may prove to be more expensive than acquiring another product. In such cases contractor may opt to buy a new product and prefer to transport wastes to a landfill. For instance, recycling steel can incur more cost than buying new steel. Steel recycling might require smelting which consumes enormous energy making the process infeasible. Contractors are after making a profit hence such losses cannot be accommodated.

According to Chandrappa & Brown (2012), need for Convenience can be another barrier to recycling and reusing. On of the major disadvantage of recycling and reusing is the challenge of estimation. At times it may be hard to establish the quantity of end product a waste can produce after various treatment processes. It is contrary to acquiring new product that are easy to accurately measure. Contractors avoid such inconveniences due to uncertainty since they can jeopardize quality. Another cause of inconveniencies of recycled wastes is time. it may take longer time to recycle wastes than to acquire new products. on the other hand, the time allocation on a project might be limited forcing contractors to dump construction and demolition wastes in a landfill.

According to Pichtel (2005), market trends might discourage recycling and reusing of waste product. The market might dictate quality of products that business enterprises have to race along. Market forces can also force more new products on market than the recycled or reused materials. Building and construction wastes can not findd a place in the market after recycling. Lack of market for recylcled commodities makes the efforts of recycling fruitless. Harzardous wastes from construction sites are hard to recycle or reuse. The technology behind recycling of these commodities has not fully explored. Inadequate research and development for more efficient recycling techniques prevents waste recovery by recycling.








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Title: Waste Management on Construction Sites in Oman

Dissertation – total words from (12,000 to 15,000) with the Literature review. Not more and Not less

· Please use British Language only with correct spelling and grammar

· Abstract

· Acknowledgement

· Table of Contents with( tables, figures and graphs)

Chapter 1: Introduction

· Overview

· Background that covers the project

· Aim and Objectives (see the Literature review)

· Introduction on methodology

· Main Achievements of this study

· Structure of Dissertation – What covers on each chapter

Chapter 2

· Literature Review (already Done but need some improvement )

Chapter 3

· Methodology

· Qualitative research and Quantitative research

· How you decided on the questionnaire ( what kind of questions that been chosen and based on what)

Chapter 4: Investigation

· Interview Analysis and/or Questionnaire Analysis

· Analysis of the answers related to the literature review

· What you found out from the researches on literature review

Chapter 5

· Conclusion after this study

· Recommendation for future research

· Limitations to your research and how it is limited to those opinions

References : from A to Z( at least 150 References) Harvard style referencing , Add the literature review references as well.


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